Biometric Privacy Studies
How to generate Spoofed Irises from an Iris Code Template
(S. Venugopalan and M. Savvides, "How to generate spoofed irises from an iris code template," in IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, Vol.6, No.2, pp.385-395, June 2011)
Biometrics has gained a lot of attention over recent years as a way to identify individuals. Of all biometrics-based techniques, the iris-pattern-based systems have recently shown very high accuracies in verifying an individual's identity. The premise here is that iris patterns are unique across people. Only the iris bit code template specific to an individual need be stored for future identity verification. It is generally accepted that this iris bit code is unidentifiable data. However, in this work, we explore methods to generate alternate iris textures for a given person for the purpose of bypassing a system based on this iris bit code. We show that, if this spoof texture is presented to an iris recognition system, it will generate the same score response as that of the original iris texture. Hence, this approach can bypass filter-based feature extraction systems (such as Daugman style systems) without using the actual texture of the target iris that we want to spoof, by obtaining a hamming distance match score that falls within the authentic score range. This approach assumes we know the feature extraction mechanism of the iris matching scheme. We embed features within a person's natural iris texture to spoof another person's iris. A very convincing preliminary investigation into how one can get by any iris recognition system by synthesizing various levels of “natural” looking irises is presented here and we hope to use this knowledge to build countermeasures into the feature extraction scheme of the recognition module.
Iris Spoofing: Reverse Engineering the Daugman Feature Encoding Scheme
(S. Venugopalan and M. Savvides "Iris Spoofing: Reverse Engineering the Daugman Feature Encoding Scheme," in Handbook of Iris Recognition, part of the series on Advances in Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, Springer London, pp. 355-366, 2013.)
Biometric systems based on iridal patterns have shown very high accuracies in verifying an individual’s identity due to the uniqueness of the iris pattern across individuals. For identity verification purposes, only the iris bit code template of an individual need be stored. In this chapter, we explore methods to generate synthetic iris textures corresponding to a given person for the purpose of bypassing an iris-based security system using these iris templates. We present analysis to prove that when this “spoof” texture is presented to an iris recognition system; it will elicit a similar response from the system as that due to the genuine iris texture to which the spoof corresponds. We embed this spoof texture within the iris of an imposter to achieve this end. Systems using filter-based feature extraction systems – such as Daugman style systems – may be bypassed using this technique. We assume knowledge of solely the feature extraction mechanism of the iris matching scheme and, as mentioned, the iris bit code template of the person whose iris is to be spoofed. We present a complete investigation into how one can get by an iris recognition system using this approach, by generating various “natural”-looking irises and hope to use this knowledge to incorporate several countermeasures into the feature extraction scheme of an iris recognition module.